Organic Livestock and Poultry Farming

Organic Livestock and Poultry Farming


Here’s an in-depth look at the world of organic farming for both livestock and organic.

Organic farmers should promote animal well-being throughout the farm. This may be done by minimizing physical and psychological stress on the animals and reducing the incidence of disease. Also, when animals are not stressed, veterinary bills are reduced and meat tenderness is maintained.

Pain  and stress relief Conventional farming practices such as castrating, marking and mulesing, if it cannot be avoided, should be kept to a minimum.

Physical alternations should be provided as needed to promote the animal’s welfare and in a manner that reduces pain and stress. Anesthetics lidocaine and procaine are allowed to be used for pain reduction. Chlorohexidine is also allowed for surgical procedures conducted by a veterinarian, as well as a number of other topical disinfectants.

Also, stress during handling can be minimized by reducing noise and not rushing stock through gateways.

Animals also experience stress when in transport going to market and during slaughter. Stress must be minimized during this period. Slaughter must be done quickly and without unnecessary stress. Animals should not be placed in an area where slaughter of other animals can be seen.

Living conditions

The farm should have living conditions for animals such that their needs for free movement, food, water, shelter and shade are provided. Also, the farmer must be aware of the animals’ specific natural behavior patterns. Living conditions that accommodate the health and natural behavior of the animals should be provided. Continue reading “Organic Livestock and Poultry Farming”

Brick fuel from Manure

Brick fuel  from Manure

In an economy on which fuel like gasoline and LPG is on a constant rise alternatives should be considered.

Most countries are now into alternative energy like  solar power, wind mill, hydropower and biogas.

In our country we could use manure of cattle and carabao as a source of energy.

What do you need for this investigatory project?

  1. Fresh carabao or cattle manure
  2. Rice hull
  3. Saw dust
  4. Molder

Get 300 grams of fresh cow or carabao manure then mix it thoroughly with 300 grams of saw dust  and 300 grams of rice hull. Be sure that you have an even mix. The cattle or carabao manure will serve as the binder, uneven mixing will make your brick unstable/crumble. After mixing you need to put it in a molder. A molder could be a simple square box,  kawayan (cut into half) or halves (cut into half). Put the mix in the molder and sun dry it for 3-5 days. After sun drying you could use it now as “Panggatong” or alternative for  uling or gasul.

How to slaughter a carabao

Slaughter of carabao


  1. Bathe the animal all over to remove adhering dirts.
  2. Tie the animal to a post or a ring in the floor.
  3. Stun the animal. Stunning may be done by hitting at the intersection of two diagonal lines connecting the eyes and the bases of the horns with a sledge hammer or captive bolt. If a matador is used it is done in the intersection of a line midway between the horns and line joining the midpoint of the ears. After stunning, severe the point over the brisket toward the jaw then insert the sticking knife in front of the brisket at a 40 degrees angle. Severe the jugular vein and carotid arteries for a thorough bleeding. To collect the blood easily , form a pouch over the skin o the brisket where incision is made.
  4. After bleeding, shackle the animal and lift it by a mechanical hoist to a skinning cradle where the skin is partially flayed. Remove the feet and cut the breast into halves.
  5. From the skinning cradle, transfer the carcass to the meat rail where flaying is completed and the head is cut at the atlantooccipital  joint.
  6. To remove the visceral organs, cut through the pelvic bone to the region of the breast bone. An ax maybe used in cutting. Avoid puncturing the intestine and the stomach.
  7. Separate the edible from the inedible parts of the entrails. The viscera are inspected on the tripe stand after the contents are removed. Offals are placed in a buggy and taken to the tripery for cleaning, preparation and dispatching.
  8. Split the carcass by cutting through the middle vertebral column. Wash and trim thoroughly the carcass. Hang the carcass on the hanging rail to drip.
  9. Quarter the carcass on the side between the last two ribs.
  10. Weigh brand the carcass and have a meat inspection certificate issued for dispatching.
  11. If the carcass isnot for immediate disposal, chill overnight at a temperature of about 2 to 4 degrees Celsius.

Source: Phil Recommends for carabao production, 1978

Carabo raising – kalabaw

Carabao Fattening

Feedlot fattening of the carabao is one of the fastest ways to increase carabeef production. It is simply feeding the animal with locally available feeds but are of good quality and least cost. More so, feedlot fattening becomes especially useful in areas where farm by-products such as sugar cane tops, pineapple pulp, corn fodder, cover crops and the like are abundantly available.

In the Philippines at present carabao feedlot fattening has a very limited scope. The majority of the carabao raisers are small farmers whose primary purpose for maintaining1 to 3 carabaos is for draft. A secondary purpose is to sell them eventually for meat. The term of its service on the farm however, depends on its efficiency as a worker or when there is an exceptional price offered for it.

Both the cattle anthe carabao are usually fed and fattener on the available crop residues during the season. In certain barrios of Batangas, crop residues and weeds are supplemented with commercial starter mash at a rate of about 1.5 to 2 kilograms a day.

The following are the classes of carabaos fattened for the market:

1. Retired work animals on account of old age and viciousness.
2. Feeder stock about 2-1/2 to 3 years of age, home grown or purchased in the market.
3. Carabaos below 3 years old but not suited for breeding or work purposes.

Advantage of feedlot Fattening

1. Fast turnover of capital. Fattening of carabaos may be attained in a reasonable length of time depending on management and nutrition.
2. The animals are less prone to disease because of limited time spent on the farm.
3. Profitable utilization of farm by-products generally going to waste.
4. Housing of feeder stock does not need a big area. In open lot confinement, the suggested floor space allowance is 4.0 to 4.7 sq. m per mature feeder, 2.8 to 3.7 sq. m. for yearlings and 1.8 to 2.8 sq. m for caracalves
5. Management is relatively simple. For backyard fattening, the phases of management involve only feeding the fattener with any cheap by-products, forage or some concentrates available. When animals is ready for marketing or if a lucrative price is offered for it, then the animal is sold. However, management  under commercial scale is more intricate. Apart from the regular purchase of feeds and following of the feeding program, other practices involved are buying of stocks, medication and marketing of fattened animals.

Contrasting disadvantage of feedlot fattening.
1. The need for large capital investment. This however holds true only for the commercial scheme of fattening where large amount of  money is needed for the periodic purchase of feeds and stocks, Under backyard fattening, when only one of two carabaos are involved, the problem is not usually encountered. In fact, fattening becomes only incidental; that is when work animals are retired from the farm.
2. The need to have skills in buying and selling of sticks. This statement is true when feedlot fattening exists as a true business or in a commercial scale.
3. In the commercial scale, the availability of feeder stock maybe limited.

There is money in carabao feedlot fattening whether it is in a backyard or commercial scale . However, its success depends mainly on three factors:

1. Feeds and feeding. The profits from feedlot fattening greatly depends on the feeds and labor costs to produce a kilogram weight gain. The labor cost may not be very significant in the backyard scale, but for commercial or semi-commercial scale, the length of the fattening period has a profound effect on the cost of production.
2. The feeder stocks should have that inherent capacity to fatten at a much shorter period of time. Retired animals may not compare with the young feeder stocks, but they are feedlot fattened in order to improve the market value.
3. Feedlot facilities. Under backyard conditions, the carabao may just be housed nder a nipa shed, however, it should provide the necessary facilities for its protection and comfort. Floor, feeding and watering spaces should always be given important considerations regardless of the scheme ( commercial or backyard).
A)    In an open shed, the beam of the roofing should at least be 3.05 m high to allow adequate ventilation and cooling.
B)    Fencing in an open lot should at least be 1.2 to 1.5m high and strong enough to hold animals may just be tethered securely to a post or in the field, but must have access to the feeds and water.
C)    Adequate watering and feeding trough. For caracalves  weighing up ro 200 kg the top of the feed bunk should be about 46 cm high. For older animals, the height of the feed bunk should be 61 to 76 cm or less. The depth of the bunk should be 25 cm to minimize feed losses and to make feeds readily available. Feeding space for calves should be about 46 cm   per animal and for older animals, 61 to 76 cm. Provide at least 30 cm of watering space for every 10 heads if the open tank is used. Continue reading “Carabo raising – kalabaw”