Cattle dung and rice hulls can be used as fuel for cooking purposes, especially in rural

areas where firewood is getting scarce.




1. Mix in a pail or in any available basin or kerosene can one part rice hull to six parts fresh manure. Animal manure should be fresh and moist so it can bind the mixture when dry.

2. Mix the mixture thoroughly with the use of shovels.

3. Press the mixture to remove the excess moisture.

4. Pour the mixture into tall milk cans which serve as mold. Both ends of the can should be opened to facilitate removal of the briquets.

5. Remove the molds and dry the briquets to the sun for three to four days. At this stage, the briquets have a moisture content of around eight to 12 per cent.


Source: Phil. Farmer’s Journal September 1980

Descriptor: Fuel technology

Descriptor: Carabao dung

Descriptor: Rice hulls

The Many Uses of Barks

The Many Uses of Barks


The term bark loosely refers to the outer covering of the stem and branches. Technically, it includes all the tissues from outside the cambium to the outermost layers of a woody stem. The bark serves as a protective tissue. It acts as a conduit transporting food to the other parts of the tree. About 8% of the total volume of a tree in bark.

Bark consists of an outermost corky layer called epidermis, a layer of manufactured

food-conducting tissues called phloem, a zone between these two layers known as cortex. In several species, a layer of fibrous strips called “bast fiber” forms an innerbark. Oils, resins, tannins, waxes and phenolic substances may be present in the bark.

Cork, fiber, tannins, gums, resins, latex materials can all be derived from barks. The most

common yet the oldest and lowest grade uus of unprocessed bark is for fuel.


Following are some of the other uses of barks:

1. Bark rich in tannin – a substance used in:

a) tanning leather, preparation of binders and wood adhesives, drying fishnets, ropes, soils and clothing.

b) insecticide

c) rust prevention

d) ink manufacture

e) medicines


The barks of kamatchili, some mangrove species like ‘bakawan-babae’, busaing, langaral,

pototan and ceriops tagal are the main sources of tanning materials.


2. Bast fiber – another portion of the bark found just under the outer bark – strong, tough and durable and can be made into cloth, turinas, bowstrings, fish lines, sacks. Paper from

mulberry and salago have fine bast fibers which can be made into high grade quality paper such as bank notes and checks. Those of kalulot and other similar species are made into lady’s handbags, wallets and placemats. Bast fibers of anonang, malabuho, and sinaligan yield silky and lustrous interlaced filaments which are pliable and strong. These can be used in the manufacture of elegant hats, handbags, placemats and wallets.

Anabo, anonang, ‘kulantingan’, ‘malubago’ and sinaligan have tough and durable bast fibers with good folding endurance and bending sterngth. They can also be made into cordage and wild bag trap.


3. Barks can also be potential sources of saponins – a lathe-producing substance which can be used in the formulation of shampoo.


4. Barks which are crispy are good for making charcoal briquettes. Continue reading “The Many Uses of Barks”

Air Car

[youtube QmqpGZv0YT4]

Air car

Is it possible to run a car by using air alone? Well, as per the video above you still need a liter or gallon of gasoline to run a compressed air car. But compared to the current all gasoline car this is a huge savings!

Watch and learn! And for the Filipino inventors, hope you could invent one that runs in pure air. I remember in one talk show in ANC they have interviewed an inventor who is currently working on a generator that runs on pure air. So, maybe the technology could be adapted to a car.