Paper from Banana Stalk

Paper from Banana Stalk


Researchers from Japan’s National Chemical Laboratory for Industries discovered how to

make paper using sugarcane bagasse and banana stalk.


No poisonous chemical is used unlike the commonly used sodium suphide, sodium hydroxide

and chloride. Such method is expensive and pollutes the environment.


In the newly discovered method, no bleaching is needed. The chemicals used can be reused.

Because of very minimal capital, this could be a good small industry.



Tech Monitor

May-June 1980

Paper from Stem of Cotton Plants

Paper from Stem of Cotton Plants


The stem of the cotton plant is rich in cellulose, a good material for papermaking. This process

came from the Cotton Technological Research Laboratory in Bombay, India which taught

papermaking from cotton plant stems – such as writing paper, wrapping paper, and newsprint.

They used soft green stems with 70% moisture.



1. Boil the chopped stem in 6% alkaline.

2. Wash the cooked material and place in a beater to separate the fibers.


The resulting product a good quality yellow pulp.



Indian Farming

V. 40, Feb. 1991

Paper from Rice Straw

Paper from Rice Straw


Paper can be made from any fibrous plant but the best material is rice straw. Abundant rice

straw go to waste during harvesting time. With a very minimal capital, this agricultural waste

could be a good source of livelihood. Making paper from rice straw can be done even by

children in their homes or as a project in the community. The art of papermaking is being done

since the ancient times in China and Japan where different types of paper such as glossy and

silky ones are produced.


Continue reading “Paper from Rice Straw”

The Many Uses of Barks

The Many Uses of Barks


The term bark loosely refers to the outer covering of the stem and branches. Technically, it includes all the tissues from outside the cambium to the outermost layers of a woody stem. The bark serves as a protective tissue. It acts as a conduit transporting food to the other parts of the tree. About 8% of the total volume of a tree in bark.

Bark consists of an outermost corky layer called epidermis, a layer of manufactured

food-conducting tissues called phloem, a zone between these two layers known as cortex. In several species, a layer of fibrous strips called “bast fiber” forms an innerbark. Oils, resins, tannins, waxes and phenolic substances may be present in the bark.

Cork, fiber, tannins, gums, resins, latex materials can all be derived from barks. The most

common yet the oldest and lowest grade uus of unprocessed bark is for fuel.


Following are some of the other uses of barks:

1. Bark rich in tannin – a substance used in:

a) tanning leather, preparation of binders and wood adhesives, drying fishnets, ropes, soils and clothing.

b) insecticide

c) rust prevention

d) ink manufacture

e) medicines


The barks of kamatchili, some mangrove species like ‘bakawan-babae’, busaing, langaral,

pototan and ceriops tagal are the main sources of tanning materials.


2. Bast fiber – another portion of the bark found just under the outer bark – strong, tough and durable and can be made into cloth, turinas, bowstrings, fish lines, sacks. Paper from

mulberry and salago have fine bast fibers which can be made into high grade quality paper such as bank notes and checks. Those of kalulot and other similar species are made into lady’s handbags, wallets and placemats. Bast fibers of anonang, malabuho, and sinaligan yield silky and lustrous interlaced filaments which are pliable and strong. These can be used in the manufacture of elegant hats, handbags, placemats and wallets.

Anabo, anonang, ‘kulantingan’, ‘malubago’ and sinaligan have tough and durable bast fibers with good folding endurance and bending sterngth. They can also be made into cordage and wild bag trap.


3. Barks can also be potential sources of saponins – a lathe-producing substance which can be used in the formulation of shampoo.


4. Barks which are crispy are good for making charcoal briquettes. Continue reading “The Many Uses of Barks”