Makabuhay (tubli)


An excellent source of insecticide In a research conducted by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural resources Research & development (PCARRD) at the U.P Los Baños, it was found out the juice of 50 grams of makabuhay for 1.25 liters water can control rice green leafhoppers, insect

that bring the virus of the disease in palay.

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Large Scale Tomato Production

Large Scale Tomato Production


There’s a demand for tomatoes all-year round and planting the crop is not really complicated.


Large scale tomato production could be one of the wisest decisions an agriprenuer could make. Planting tomatoes is not complicated and a sure market awaits this product, considering the year-round demand and its many uses. This vegetable is used in preparing salads, pickles, catsup, candies, sauce, juice, soups, fruit preserves, paste, vinegar and wine. It is served raw, baked, stewed or fried and can even be used as dog food. Its skin and seeds serve as animal feed, tomato flakes and medicine.

            You can choose from among the following varieties: Canbal, Ambal or Mati-kina, Pearl Harbor, Pritch and Rutgers, Homestead, Earlieana, Ace or Marglobe and Improved Harbor, a variety developed by the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) to withstand the rainy season.

            Tomatoes can grow on different soil types, from silt to clay loam or sandy loam. It needs warm weather and ample amount of sunshine to produce profitable yields.


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Philippine Berry into Jelly, Jam and juice -Part 2

Sensory Evaluation of the Finished Product

The finished food products were evaluated using the laboratory taste method.

Evaluation was done in a well-lighted, quiet and odor free room. Laboratory panelists were asked to sit independently and advised not to communicate with one another.


The samples  were presented in uniformly sized, clean, odorless and tasteless containers. Panelists were served with a glass of wter to rinse their mouth before and after tasting each sample.


The products were evaluated according to the following attributes; color, texture, consistency, smell , flavor and general acceptability using a four point hedonic scale. The following stepers were followed in the evaluation of the sample:

Lipote jam. Five milliliter of processed sample was placed in each uniformly sized coded plastic container and served immediately .

Lipote juice. Twenty five milliliter of juice was placed in each code plastic up and was served immediately.

Lipote jelly. Five milliliter of sample was placed in each uniformly sized plastic container and served immediately.


Determination of Chemical properties

Technical assistance in evaluating the processed products was sought from the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI), Standards and testing division of Department of Science and Technology (DOST) at Bicutan, Taguig.


The samples subjected to testing were all contained in there separate glass jars in the following amounts; 1 liter juice, 1 kilogram jam and 800 grams jelly.


The products were tested as to their total soluble solids (TSS), refractive index, titratable acidity and pH using test method. (AOAC 1995, 16th ed.) Viscosity was also tested using Brookfield  (RVT) Viscometer. The procedures followed in the determination of chemical properties are as follows:


Total soluble solids(Brix)

A refractometer was used to determine the total soluble solids (TSS). A drop of sample (2-3 ml) was placed on the prism of the hand refractometer using a wooden or rubber applicator. Care was taken so that no pulp particles or air bubbles were included. Enough time was allowed for the instrument and the sample temperature to equilibrate. Degree Brix read was equivalent to percent sugar (Askar & Treptow, 1993).


Titratable Acidit (TA)

Titrable acidity was expressed as the amount of free acid  (mainly as anhydrous citric acid) in the product (g/100g, g/100 ml or g/l). Ten ml juice was placed into a 250 ml erlenmeyer flask, then 50 ml water and 5 drops of indicator were added. The mixture was titrated with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) quite rapidly until near pH 6, then the alkali was added slowly to pH 7. Titration was finished by adding 4 drops at at time until  pH 8.1. If no pH meter is available, titrate to the desired end point and faint pink color will occur (Askar and Treptow, 1993)


Measurement of pH value

Twenty five ml of the samples were placed in a 100 ml beaker. The glass electrode was rinsed with distilled water several times. The pH meter was calibrated to pH 7.0 and ph 4.0. The electrode was immersed in the sample container and the pH registered on the digital screen of the calibrated electronic pH meter was read.


Consumer evaluation of the product. A centralize testing system using a Central location Test (CLT) was conducted in the group of respondents from Home Economics, Vocational and Technical Education Department (HEVTED) of the College of Education (CEd) in Cavite State University (CvSU0. One hundred respondents evaluated the processed lipote products. They were made up of students andfaculty members who were purposively selected and asked to taste the samples and describe the level of acceptability according to the prescribed attributes: color, texture, consistency, flavor, aroma, and general acceptability using a four-point hedonic scale.


During the acceptability test, each respondent was given a questionnaire to determine his/her personal characteristics and to elicit information on his/her food and entrepreneurial orientation.