Principle of meat preservation -part 2

Principle of meat preservation

By Lourdes Santos-Rivera

Curing– is the application of salt, sugar, salitre (potassium nitrate) and other preservatives and adjunct to prolong the keeping quality of the product. Other substances such as sugar, spices, vinegar and wine may be used for different types of cure, but in small quantities, thus, may have no preservative effect. Although the essential oils retard bacterial growth. Vinegar has a similar action.
There are three ways of curing
-with salt alone
-with salt and sugar
-with salt, sugar and saltpeter-sugar cure is either done dry or in sweet pickle brine.
Because the dry method is faster, it is practical for use in tropical like the Philippines where warm weather makes spoilage a serious problem.

Refrigeration– is the exposure of the meat to the temperature range of 36 Fahrenheit  to 50 Fahrenheit to retard mold and bacterial growth for a limited period.
-home refrigeration 4 degrees Celsius to 10 degrees Celsius
-commercial refrigeration 1  degrees Celsius to -4 degrees Celsius

Freezing – is the exposure of the meat to a temperature range of  -18 to 0 degrees Celsius resulting to crystallization of water in the tissues, thus inactivating the enzymes and the bacteria present.

Canning- the hermetic or airtight sealing of food in cans or jars at  100 degrees Celsius and 10-15 pounds pressure for a specific period of time.

Freeze-drying – is the removal of moisture from the tissues by sublimation of moisture into vapor without passing the liquid state.

Irradiation – transfer of extremely large amount of energy to effect very rapid and selective biological and chemical changes in meat.

Ingredients usage

Refined salt – flavor /taste / preservative, 1 table spoon /kilogram

Curing salt (pink) – preservative, fixes the color of the meat, ½ to 1 t /kg

Phosphate– contributes to the tackiness of the meat (malagkit), increases yield of finished product, contributes to tenderness of meat, 1 tsp/kg

Vitamin C powder or Sodium erythorbate – tsp/kg
Ascorbic acid (500mg)– tablet/kg
Ascorbic acid (250 mg)– accelerates color fixation of the meat in process of curing, anti-carcinogenic, 1tab/kg
Soy protein isolate– increase yield, adds to the tenderness and juiciness, 1 tbsp + ¼ cup water / kg

TSI gel or carageenan– increases yield of meat products for ham, tocino, products for ham, tocino, tapa, 1 tsp (for ground meat) + ¼ cup water, increases water holding capacity for sausages, hamburger (1/2 tsp/kg), increases binding quality.
Anisado wine – for ham, tocino, tapa, skinless longganisa, canton sausage and fresh native sausage (2T/kg)
Meat enhancer (hydrolozed vegetable protein)– enhances better flavor, can be applied to all meat products (1/4-1/2 t/kg)
Beef falvor– for hamburger and beef sausages, recommended for extended products with TVP (1 tsp/kg)
Garlic powder – for hambergur, tapa, tocino (1 tsp/kg) , bilbao, canton sausage and fresh native sausage (instead of fresh garlic)

Food color (allura red)- for longanisa and tocino, dissolve 1 tsp. powder in ¼ cup water.

This serves as the stock solution.
Texturized vegetable protein (TVP) from soybeans , uses as meat extender to increase the yield of ¼ cup TVP + product to bring down the cost ½ cup water /kg meat.
Sodium benzoate- preservative, to prolong shelf-life of meat products ¼ tsp/kg meat.
Meat tenderizer or soda 5, to tenderize the meat ¼ tsp/ kg meat.
Paprika or bilbao powder- for chorizo de bilbaos: 5-9 tbsp/kg, bilbao and chorize de recado 2 tbsp/kg
Corned beef seasoning– for corned beef ,enhances the flavor 1 tbsp/kg.
Nutmeg- for corned beef, luncheon meat, structured ham, nuggets, for seasoning 1 tsp/kg.
Trimix or multiblend– for corned beef – 1-2 tbsp dissolved, to chicken corned beef extract, add’t to the meat to increase yield extract and boil until it thickens, add to the flaked corned beef.
Celery powder– for hamburger, seasoning and flavor (1/2 tbsp/kg meat)
Hamburger seasoning – better aroma (1 tbsp/kg meat)
Potato starch – for hamburger and longanisa, higher yield, better consistency 1 tbsp/kg meat.
Ham spice– for ham, bacon, chicken ham, flavor for the above products 1 tbsp/kg
Clavo de comer – 5 pcs / 1-2 kgs meat
Oregano – 4 stands/1-2 kg meat.
Laurel– 4-5 /1-2 kg meat
Others: syringe and needle for infecting ham, bacon and chicken ham.
Paperlyne (500 pcs) 1 ream for wrapping
-1 kg. skinless= 24 pcs longganisa and lining for 500 pcs is good for 20 kgs. Linning for hamburger patties
-1 kg hamburger=20 patties
-500 pcs is ood for 25 kgs hamburger patties.
Meat Specialties of the Philippines
MARID agribusiness January 2005

Principle of meat preservation

Principle of meat preservation

By Lourdes Santos-Rivera

Meat preservation is principally concerned with application of measures to delay meat spoilage, which is caused by microbial, chemical and physical changes. Microbial spoilage (caused by bacteria) is most common. Microbes thrive in moisture and since meat is 70 to 75 % water, it spoils easily through microbial action. Meat, being a rich source of nutrients, also becomes an excellent food for bacteria.

Methods of meat preservation, however different from each other, are alike in the way they employ environmental conditions that discourage the growth of microorganisms. They may be grouped in three broad categories based on :
a)control of temperature
b)control of moisture
c) lethal agents (bactericidal, bacteriostatic, fungicidal and fungistic.)

Generally, the method of discourage microbial growth can be divided into groups:
-by exposing meat to high (100 degrees Celsius) or low  (0 degrees Celsius) temperature.
-by treating meat with substances (e.g. salt, nitrate, and other chemical preservatives) which will kill microorganisms or delay microbial actions.
-Microbial growth
-atmospheric oxidation
-enzymatic reaction

Microbial growth
Meat contains abundant nutrients required for the growth of bacteria, yeast and molds (microorganisms which cause food spoilage). Thus, these microorganisms flourish in meat. Eliminating the growth requirements:
-temperature requirements
-moisture content
-nutrient content
-oxygen (for aerobic microorganisms)

Are the most important considerations in the control of their growth. This can be achieved by removing one, two or all the required conditions for growth.
Atmospheric Oxidation

Meat fats are susceptible to oxidation, when they are exposed to the molecular oxygen present air. This results in the production of a strong rancid color and flavor in the cooked product. When this chemical reaction occurs, it constitutes a defect referred to as oxidative rancidity. More popularly known as rancidity or manta, this can be avoided by eliminating the factors required for its development. These factors are light, air and free fatty acids. While the entry of light and air can be prevented ,free fatty acids esily form from the meat fats. Antioxidants are compounds which react with certain intermediary products necessary for the development of free fatty acids.

Enzymatic reaction
This  is another common cause of food spoilage. Enzymes are protein substances which will help speed up chemical reactions. Enzymatic reaction may be reduced or totally stopped if you subject the meat to temperature below or above the temperature range needed for the activity of the meat enzymes.

Drying– removal of moisture from meat of moisture from meat. The method involves the reduction of the original water content (70% of the meat to about 15%).

There are two ways of drying:
Natural sun drying- natural sunlight is used to reduce the moisture content of meat.
Artificial drying- a chamber equipped with heating elements maintained at a temperature, of 110-120 Fahrenheit and relative humidity of 85% is used for drying . This is more expensive than sun drying but its dried products have better quality and can be sold at a higher price.
Smoking – there are two methods of smoking:
-Natural– is the exposure of the meat to wood smoke which causes the deposition of pyroligenous acid on the meat surface that acts as preservative and flavoring agent. Hard-wood, saw dust, guava leaves or any kind of wood may be used.

Artificial – smoke flavor is incorporated in the pumping pickle for ham and bacon at the rate of 1 teaspoon (tsp.) /liter.
Salting– simple method or dehydration in which salt causes the withdrawal of water from the tissue of both the meat and the spoilage organisms, resulting to the shriveling and inactivation of the cells.


Meat Specialties of the Philippines

MARID agribusiness January 2005