Papaya production in the Philippines- part 2

Hermaphrodite fruits are generally pear-shaped while female fruits are more or less round. The fruits weigh about 450 grams and are produced about eight to 10 months after outplantng. The plants are one to 1.5 meters tall.

Varietal name is usually derived from the place of origin. Examples are Makapunong Isabela, Los Banos Pinakwan, Legaspi no. 1 znd Cagayan red stem.

Temperature and soil requirements. A tropical plant that originated from South America, papaya was introduced into the Philippines via Mexico. It prefers warm areas with temperatures ranging from 21 to 33 degrees Celsius.

A minimum annual rainfall of 1,200 millimeters is sufficient, well-distributed over the growing season. The plants cannot withstand strong winds. Lodging and stalk breakage are common during the typhoon season.

Continue reading “Papaya production in the Philippines- part 2”

Papaya production in the Philippines- part 1


Papaya production in the Philippines

By:Onofre Ballesteros


Papaya is a versatile crop that is grown year round. It produces fruits almost continuously as long as there is adequate soil moisture. Temporary cessation of fruiting usually occurs during the dry months. Moisture stress causes sex reversal towards maleness of flowers, thus resulting in the failure of plants to bear fruits. That’s why there are vacant spaces or escapes on nodes of the tree trunks.

Ripe fruits are usually eaten as breakfast dessert, while green fruits are used as a vegetable for such dishes as “tinolang manok.” The green fruits are also picked or processed into papain.

Ripe fruits are excellent sources of vitamin C. It also contains vitamin A and B, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. It contains seven to nine percent fructose sugar but has very little starch.

Papain – an enzyme derived from green papaya fruits – is used in the preparation of food, beverages, medicines, in softening wool, in silk degumming, as a meat tenderizer, and as a stabilizer in beef processing.

Continue reading “Papaya production in the Philippines- part 1”

The papaya – part 2

The Papaya 

Papaya is rich in an enzyme called papain, a protease that is useful in tenderizing meat, and other proteins. Its Utility is in breaking down  the tough meat fibers and it has been utilized for thousands of years in its native South America. It is included as a component in powdered meat tenderizers. Papaya enzyme is also  marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problems. Papain is extremely useful since it retains proteolytic activity over a wide pH range, unlike other proteases. Thus, it is in more widespread use than bromelain, the proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple juice. Latex is extracted on a commercial scale in East Africa, where the green fruit are “tapped” by making incisions on the fruit surface in the morning, and catching the exuding latex over a period of days. The latex is then dried, and ground into powder. The most popular use is a meat tenderizer.


The black seeds are edible, and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper. The papaya is high in digestive properties and has a direct tonic effect on the stomach. It is used in the treatment of stomach ulcers and fevers, and has a high mucus solvent action.


All organs of the plant contain laticifers, and white latex flows freely from any cut surface. Long ago, natives learned that papaya latex is a very effective meat tenderizer. Tough meat was wrapped in fresh leaves for several hours to make it tender. The active tenderizing ingredient is a protein-digesting enzyme called papain, which is very similar to human stomach pepsin. Interestingly, some of the early crude studies of plant protein structure   were done by digesting the proteins into pieces with the use of papain.


When choosing a papaya, look for one that is fairly large, half yellow or more, and slightly soft. It should yield to gentle palm pressure. Avoid papayas that are too soft, or those that have scars or blemishes.


If the skin has no yellow, the papaya will ripen if left at room temperature for a few days. If a papaya is less than half ripe, do not store it in the refrigerator. Cool temperatures shut off the ripening process. A papaya that is one-quarter to one-half ripe should keep for one to two weeks. Completely ripe papayas should be refrigerated and eaten as soon as possible.


Papain has been commercially produced by scoring unripened fruits with longitudinal cuts and then collecting the copious latex in containers set on the ground below. The latex is sun- or oven-dried into a powder; the papain powder most commonly is marketed in the United States as Adolph’s Meat Tenderizer. Much of the papain is produced  in Tanzania. There are a variety of other uses for this interesting enzyme, which is fairly similar to another proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple, bromelin.


As we can see the uses for papain are diverse and thus it makes it an extremely valuable enzyme. Papain has been employed to treat ulcers, dissolve membranes in diphtheria, and reduce swelling, fever and adhesions after surgery. With considerable risk, it has been applied on meat impcted in the gullet, chemopapain is sometimes injected in cases of slipped spinal discs or pinched nerves, Precautions should be taken because some individuals are allergic to papain in any form and even to meat tenderized with papain.


As medicinal product, papain is used in some localities to remedy gastrointestinal and similar ailments. The ripe fruit, when eaten fresh, improves food digestion and is reported to have a complimentary laxative effect.. Its proteolytic enzymes work together to break down  complex proteins to produce small peptides and amino acids that cn be better utilized or transported to other parts of the body. One focus of contemporary biomedical research is determining the most appropriate  applications of these bioreactive natural papaya plant products.


Benefits or uses of Papaya include

Digestive enzyme for protein

Tonic effect on the stomach

Has solvent effect on mucous


Helps stomach ulcers

Aids in fevers


The papaya is a good source of vitamins A and C, as well as folate and fiber. In addition, it’ fat-free. Cholesterol-free and low in sodium. And an average serving (1/2 papaya) has only 70 calories.


Source:biolife magazine September-october 2008

The papaya – part 1

The papaya


Papaya are native to Central America.

Thee are two varietes of papayas, the Hawaiian papaya is the most common variety and may weigh one pound each, and less common Mexican Papaya which can weigh up to 15 punds. They are available all year. Papayas are known for their enzyme, papain, which is the basis for many meat-tenderizing products on the market.


Papaya have exacting climate requirements for vigorous growth and fruit production. They must have warmth through the year and will be damaged by light frosts. Brief exposure to 32 Fahrenheit is damaging and prolonged cold without overhead sprinkling will kill the plants. Cold, wet soil is almost is almost always lethal. Cool temperatures will also alter fruit flavor. Papayas make excellent container and greenhouse specimens where soil moisture and temperature can be moderated.


It is believed that the papaya originated in southern Mexico, Central America, or West Indies. Now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries, there are about 45 species of papaya. The most common variety in the United States is the Solo papaya, which is grown in Hawaii and Florida. Mexican Papaya are much larger than the Hawaiian types and may be more than 15 inches long.


The papaya is considered to be one of the healthiest fruits to eat and to some the most nutritious fruit of all. In 1992, the Center for Science in The Public Interest (CSPI) a Washington based consumer group that studies nutrition, compared 40 fruits for their overall healthfulness. Based on a point system awarded to each fruit for the RDA percentage of the nine individual vitamins plus estimations for potassium and fiber, the papaya was number one,  followed by cantaloupe, strawberries, oranges, and tangerines. Papayas are not only nutritious they are also delicious.