Botanical effective against ectoparasite
Today, societal and scientific concerns regarding exclusive dependency on chemicals have emphasized the need for the development and introduction of cheap and environment friendly pesticide alternatives. One such alternative is the use of botanicals to control ectoparasites in poultry , swine and ruminants.
In a recent study conducted by animal scientist from the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB) eight botanicals were tested for their efficacy in controlling ectoparasites in poultry and selected ruminants namely: carabao, goat, sheep, cattle and dog.
The selected botanicals were: leaves of kakawate (Gliricidia sepium), akapulko (Cassia alata), neem (Azadirachta indica), calabash (Crescentia cujete), alagaw (premna odorata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), stems of makabuhay (Tinospora rumphii), leaves of kutchai (allium tuberosum), and roots of tubli (Derris philippinensis). The plant parts were prepared either as a 100% crude powder and applied topically to the whole body of the animal or as a decoction or crude water extract in various concentrations. The decoction used oil or water as a carrier and it was applied on the test animals as a spray, dip, sponge bath, or as a “pour on application”.
Results showed that crude powder of tobacco and tubli proved the most effective against chicken mites and lice. Tobacco decoction against chicken live was highly effective at concentrations of 7.5% and 15% volume and applied using the dipping method. The selected botanicals in 40% coconut oil were fairly effective against chicken lice.
Trials on the sarcoptic mites of swine showed that calabash (40-60%) and makabuhay (40%) , kakawate (60%) and tubli (10-20%) were highly effective in controlling the mites. On the other hand, tubli (20%) makabuhay (20-40%) , tobacco (20-40%) and neem (20-40%) mixed with oil proved fatal to the sarcoptic mites of pigs.
In vitro contract toxicity test on carabao-sucking lice using water and oil emulsion showed that 10-40% tubli, 10-40% makabuhay and 10-40% neem killed the lice after they were exposed to the botanical preparations for half an hour to five hours.
In vitro contact toxicity trial using the “Pour-on” method of botanical plants in oil emulsion proved that tobacco and makabuhay were the most effective in controlling carabao lice.
For goat lice, kakawate, akalpulko, calabash, alagaw, tubli, tobacco, makabuhay, and neem as a 20% decoction in oil emulsion was found moderately effective. Also a 20% decoction in oil emulsion of calabash, makabuhay , neem , tubli, alagaw, and akapulko were found effective in controlling sheep lice: while only makabuhay , neem, and tubli proved effective against cattle lice.
Finally based on mite counts, lesion scores, and scratching frequency, it was found that tubli and kutchai decoctions had the highest potentials in eradicating sarcoptic mange in dogs.
Among the eight selected botanicals, tobacco, tubli, alagaw, makabuhay, and akapulko showed the most potential as natural ectoparasiticides for poultry and livestock. Though more research is needed to develop the potential of these promising botanicals, it is an imperative that researchers and other scientists use this information to develop a technology that could substitute or minimize the use of more expensive and high risk pesticides on the farm and even in our homes.
Source: BAR TODAY January march 2001, Junelyn S. De la Rosa
(this study was conducted by Dr. Carmencita C. Directo-Mateo from the Institute of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, UPLB and Dr. Mauro F. Manuel from the College of Veterinary Medicine UPLB)