PYRETHRUM FLOWER Is a kind if white chrysanthemum that grows in high altitudes like the Mountain province. It contains pyrethrin, a chemical that drives insect away. The higher the altitude, the stronger is its pyrethrin content.


The pyrethrin or pesticide content in this flower is not harmful to humans and is beneficial to

plants like potatoes. It also repels insects’ pests that feed on cultured plants. Pyrethrin comes from chrysanthemum leaves.


From: Greenfields

GMO Cabbage

GMO Cabbage:

One Component of Sustainable Pest Control


Bacillus thurengiensis (BT) is a natural bacterium that is widely used as a safe and effective pesticide.


Current approaches used by farmers to control pests in cabbage crops are failing. More pests are emerging, pesticide abuse is rampant, and pesticide residues are often detected on cabbage at the market. In response, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) called a meeting to discuss innovative and sustainable approaches to cabbage pest control. Representatives from environmental, regulatory, research and consumer communities in India attended.

            Dr. O.P. Dubey of ICAR presented the background to the issues faced. He reported that the number of pests attacking cabbage in India has increased from 10 to 38 since 1920. This is despite the use of pesticides, pheromone traps, trap crops, pest-resistant varieties, and other pest management strategies. Although the volume of pesticides used in India has declined from 75,000 MT in 1990-91 to 43,600 MT in 2001-01, pesticide abuse is rampant and pesticide residues persist as a major problem (12% of vegetables at the market have unacceptable levels of residues).

Continue reading “GMO Cabbage”

The potentials of Organic Pesticides

The potentials of Organic pesticides

By: O.Q. Ballesteros

Greenfields March 1993

Because of the high toxicity of chemical pesticides, alternative pest control methods should be explored.

Everyone agrees that chemical pesticides are necessary evil. We need these chemical compounds to protect our crops from pest. For instance, in irrigated rice fields that are not protected with pesticides, the insect pest damage could go up to as high it could. 

As far as unwanted plant or weeds are concerned, the estimated yield reduction is 34 percent in transplanted rice, 40 percent in direct-seeded, rainfall lowland rice; and 67 percent in upland rice.

The pesticide market.

Because of the importance of pesticides in crop production, the sale of synthetic or chemical pesticides increased yearly from 1977 to 1991, according to the Agricultural Pesticide Institute of the Philippines or APIP. In 1977, the total sale of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and other “icides” amounted to 252.3 million pesos. Ten years later, the total sale was more than 1.5 billion pesos.

Significantly, more than 50 percent of the insecticides and herbicides purchased by farmers went to rice protection, while 60 percent of the fungicides was used to control the diseases of vegetables and fruit crops (bananas, mangoes and pineapple). Other pesticides used included, rodenticides, miticides , molluscicides and fumigants. Except for molluscicides (chemical used to control snails in ricefields and fishponds), other “icides” are generally used to protect plantation crops like sugarcane, pineapple and bananas.

Today, there is a growing awareness of the dangers posed by chemical or inorganic pesticides to the health of people and the safety of the environment. This situation has prompted government authorities to regulate and ban the use of hardly biodegradable pesticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, edrin) and the tin compounds. Other toxic chemicals will ultimately be banned for agricultural use pending the use of effective substitutes that originate from organic or synthetic sources.

It must  be stressed that crop protection can be attained by other methods, including proper cultural management, use of resistant crop varieties, us of beneficial insects and predators, and more effective implementation of the integrated pest management program (IPM) emphasizes the use of existing biological control agents and resistant crop varieties as well as combinations of compatible farm management practices which include the judicious use of pesticides based on the economic threshold level. Economic threshold level (ETL) refers to the level of insect population in a certain field situation at which the cost of control would roughly equal the value of crop loss.

Proper cultural management is another method of pest control. It is intended to make the environment less favorable for pest reproduction, dispersal and survival. Among these practices are thorough land preparation, adjustment of planting dates, good water management, field sanitation, and crop rotation.

Constraints of botanical pesticides. Because of the exceedingly high toxicity of chemical pesticides, alternative pesticide sources should be explored and biologically evaluated for their efficacy and economy. Among the potential plant sources are tobacco, derris, nami, or scientifically called Dioscorea hispida, neem or Azadirachta indica, mariold, chili and other plants with pesticidal properties.

Despite the hihly effective pesticidal properties of tobacco as a source of nicotine sulfate and derris because of its rotenone content, commercial production of these compounds are still not a reality. This may be attributed to inadequate raw material supply  (especially) derris which is not generally cultivated or produce), lack of incentives to processors and lack of competitiveness with regard to product quality compared with synthetic or chemical materials. Nevertheless, it may be worthwhile to assess the commercial value of these botanical sources. Limited technology is available but it may not be areal hindrance to commercialization since it requires sometime to produce large quantities or raw materials. Hopefully, the technology could be fully established by the time the material are available.

Producing the raw materials . Government efforts to develop the countryside can trigger enormous entrepreneurial interest in the production of botanical pesticides. A non-government organization may spearhead this livelihood project by entering into contract growing arrangements with farmers. The NGO could serve as the linkage or conduit of contract growers and processors, marketers and, ultimately, users. The government may provide both technical expertise and initial financing.

With certain pesticidal crops like neem, for example, commercial production could be coordinated with agroforestry projects since the neem tree can be planted on rolling hills, on unproductive lands or areas, and on steep slopes where cultivation of cash crops would accelerate soil erosion. The neem tree does not require much water. In fact, it is not advisable to plant it in waterlogged areas.

All parts of the neem tree are sources of pesticides , but the seed is the richest source, followed by the leaves, then the bark and finally the wood. It takes three to four years from germination to flowering. The tree flowers twice a year, i.e. March and September. The seeds can be harvested from June to July or four to five months after flowering. AN average tree can produce as much as 350 kilogram of green leaves annually and about 50 kilograms of fruit. From 50 kilograms of fruit about 30 kilograms of seeds and 60 % are recoverable. The 30 kilograms of oil could be extracted and 24 to 27 could be made into neem cake.

Neem extracts from leaves and fruits have strong insect repellant properties. Oil from the seed can repel termites and nematodes. It also affects the food intake of insects and cause abnormal insect molting. Because of its various uses, neem derived pesticides can be classified as “broad spectrum.” Continue reading “The potentials of Organic Pesticides”

Eliminating the pesky fruit flies

Eliminating the pesky fruit flies

by Junelyn S. de la Rosa

Native to the Philippines, the oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera Philippinensis) is a very destructive pest to edible fruits like mango, guava, breadfruit and papaya.

Eradicating the fruit fly using bait control could be done in two stages using the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) and the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). First, the researchers reduced the population of male oriental fruit flies to a minimum so that mating would not occur. Male oriental fruit flies were trapped using methyl eugenol- a powerful male attractant, with an insecticide such as Naled (Dibrom) or Fipronil.

Cordelitos (lengths of 6-ply cotton string about 30-45 cm) or caneite (compressed fibreboard) blocks (50 mm x 50 mm x 12.7 mm), or coconut husk blocks (50 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm) were soaked in the bait material and distributed in the field at 400 pieces per square kilometer. This treatment was repeated every eight weeks. The baits were placed on top of tree trunks or wooden poles, well out of the reach of children or animals. This technique is called the Male Annihilation Technique (MAT).

Then the residual fruitflies were eradicated using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) or the sterile male technique. Sterilizing insects is a new technique where insects are either treated chemically, genetically, or with radiation to be infertile. In the case of male fruit flies, they are subjected to radiation to make them sterile. The method aims to wipe out the fly population by introducing sterile males that cannot produce any offspring when they mate with the female fruit flies.

Sterile flies have been used in many countries. In the past, both male and female flies were released. Sterile female flies’ eggs did not develop, however, some skin damage to the fruit did result. To counter this problem, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed a genetic technique that separates males from females in several fly species. Flies released in Hawaii were only male sterile flies. Continue reading “Eliminating the pesky fruit flies”