Carabao or cow dung flooring is an age-old technology applied in the rural areas. “Bastiya,” as it is locally known, took a back seat to cement during the peak of the latter’s popularity but is currently making a quiet comeback due to the prohibitive cost of cement. The procedure for making the dung mixture herein presented is the one followed in and around the environs of Antipolo (Rizal) where the ground leaves of “puso-puso” (litseaa glutinosa) are used as a binder. It is known that in Central Luzon, “dayami” or dried rice stalks are added as filler material. The distinct advantage of carabao or cow dung flooring over simple packed earth is that the former does not give the rise to dust.


Raw materials:


Cow/carabao dung (one day old)


Leaves of Litsea glutinosa

Local names:

Puso-puso (Tagalog)

Balanganan (Mindoro)

Butus (Bataan)

Dalauen (Isabela)

Dunngul (Cagayan)

Lauat (Masbate)

Lokbus (Amburayan)

Lomangog (Guimaras Is.)

Malakakao (Bataan)

Marang (Polillo)

Mapipi (Ticao Island)

Olos-olos (Pangasinan)

Parasablut (Zambales)

Sablot (Union, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela)

Siblot (Cagayan)

Tagu-tugan (Camarines)

Tayakpok (Agusan)

Tubjus (Batanes Is.)




Mortar and pestle

Ordinary can

Soft broom or brush




1. Preparation of Foundation


Wood/bamboo/stone frames are used to enclose the entire area to be covered by the flooring. Clay/garden soil are used as the foundation, usually 3″ thick. After levelling, ashes are applied to make the foundation smooth.


2. Preparation of Carabao dung Mixture

Seven (7) parts of carabao dung is mixed with 2 parts water, or an amount which depends on the desired density/velocity of the mixture. Three (3) parts grounded/pounded leaves of “puso-puso” is mixed with the carabao dung resulting in asticky mixture. Mixing is done manually.


3. Application of the Mixture


A thin first layer of the mixture is applied in one direction, by the use of a soft broom or brush. After drying, the second layer is applied. Water is added after each application since the mixture easily dries up. The procedure is repeated until the desired flooring thickness is reached. Usually, the drying of the floor takes only one day.


Source: DOST, Mr. Ponciano Caricativo, Bo. San Jose, Antipolo,


Descriptor: Building industry

Descriptor: Flooring

Descriptor: Agricultural wastes

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.