Cacao seed are borne in pods that hang from the branches of the cacao tree. When the red
pods become deep red or when yellow-orange and green pods become yellow, they are ready
When processed, the seeds or beans are used as flavoring materials and as chocolate
beverage. These are also used in the manufacture of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
Local supply of cacao is inadequate for our industrial needs so most local processors of cacao
and chocolate product have to import cacao beans and cacao grindings.
These common varieties of cacao in the Philippines are the following:
A. Criollo – this comes in three types: Venezuela; Nicaragua and Trinidad
It is considered best for its flavor and aroma, but is susceptible to pests and disease, so
it is avoided.
The pod is elongated, thin-husked and pointed, usually with constriction near the base.
The ridges of the pods are pronounced and sharper than those of Forastero.
The pods come in two (2) colors: white when ripe is generally yellow, while those of the red criollo change from purple to yellowish orange.
The seeds are pale yellowish white or pinkish yellow.
B. Forastero – Amazonian and Amelonado are among the Forastero. This is more resistant to
insect pests and diseases, and other adverse conditions than criollo.
Oftentimes, this is more productive.
The pods has smooth appearance, less rounded tip and square base.
It is larger in size than Criollo.
The color is purple or dark, becoming yellowish between the ridges as it matures
The seed are large, somewhat rounded in the color is purple or with purplish tinges.
C. Trinitario – is a cross between criollo and Forastero with features similar to criollo. (this
exhibit the characteristics of a hybrid and is perhaps the richest source of materials for the
improvement of cacao for breeding)
famous for its well-balanced conditions of hardiness and quality products.
The seed are variable in character
D. Upper Amazonian Hybrid (Malaysian or Sabah Hybrid).
early bearing, high yielding and more vigorous.