LOPHOPETALUM TOXICUM Loher
Lophopetalum fimbriatum F.-Vill.
Hippocratea maingayi Vidal
Local names: Abuab (Tag.); abutab (Tag.); butingi (Tag.); buyum (Sul.); dayandang (Tag.); dita (Neg.); kalibambangan (Man.); puti-i-babae (Lan.); puti-i-lalaki (Lan.); sudkad (P. Bis.).
Abuab is found only in the Philippines in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Masbate, Leyte, Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago.
This tree grows to height of 25 meters. The leaves are opposite or occasionally alternate, smooth, oblong, often 15 to 18 centimeters long but sometimes reaching a length of 25 centimeters, about 7 centimeters wide, and usually pointed at both ends. The flowers are greenish white are about 1 centimeter in diameter, and have 5 petals. These are borne in terminal and axillary panicles. The fruit is leathery and smooth reaching a length of 12 centimeters and a width of 2.5 centimeters, with three, broad, longitudinal wings.
Brill and Wells report that the plant contains a physiologically active substance, a saponin which is poisonous in small quantities. Boorsma isolated a glucoside and named it lophopetalin. Valenzuela, Concha and Santos record the presence of lophopetalin 0.2 per cent; saponin, phytosterine, 5 per cent; luperol; betulin and a new stearin (C29H48O3).
In the Philippines, according to Guerrero the thickened sap of the bark is used by the Negritos and other hillmen to poison the tips of their arrows. Sulit and Brill and Wells describe the preparation of the arrow poison.