Principle of meat preservation
By Lourdes Santos-Rivera
Curing- is the application of salt, sugar, salitre (potassium nitrate) and other preservatives and adjunct to prolong the keeping quality of the product. Other substances such as sugar, spices, vinegar and wine may be used for different types of cure, but in small quantities, thus, may have no preservative effect. Although the essential oils retard bacterial growth. Vinegar has a similar action.
There are three ways of curing
-with salt alone
-with salt and sugar
-with salt, sugar and saltpeter-sugar cure is either done dry or in sweet pickle brine.
Because the dry method is faster, it is practical for use in tropical like the Philippines where warm weather makes spoilage a serious problem.
Refrigeration- is the exposure of the meat to the temperature range of 36 Fahrenheit to 50 Fahrenheit to retard mold and bacterial growth for a limited period.
-home refrigeration 4 degrees Celsius to 10 degrees Celsius
-commercial refrigeration 1 degrees Celsius to -4 degrees Celsius
Freezing – is the exposure of the meat to a temperature range of -18 to 0 degrees Celsius resulting to crystallization of water in the tissues, thus inactivating the enzymes and the bacteria present.
Canning- the hermetic or airtight sealing of food in cans or jars at 100 degrees Celsius and 10-15 pounds pressure for a specific period of time.
Freeze-drying – is the removal of moisture from the tissues by sublimation of moisture into vapor without passing the liquid state.
Irradiation – transfer of extremely large amount of energy to effect very rapid and selective biological and chemical changes in meat.
Refined salt – flavor /taste / preservative, 1 table spoon /kilogram
Curing salt (pink) – preservative, fixes the color of the meat, ½ to 1 t /kg
Phosphate- contributes to the tackiness of the meat (malagkit), increases yield of finished product, contributes to tenderness of meat, 1 tsp/kg
Vitamin C powder or Sodium erythorbate – tsp/kg
Ascorbic acid (500mg)- tablet/kg
Ascorbic acid (250 mg)- accelerates color fixation of the meat in process of curing, anti-carcinogenic, 1tab/kg
Soy protein isolate- increase yield, adds to the tenderness and juiciness, 1 tbsp + ¼ cup water / kg
TSI gel or carageenan- increases yield of meat products for ham, tocino, products for ham, tocino, tapa, 1 tsp (for ground meat) + ¼ cup water, increases water holding capacity for sausages, hamburger (1/2 tsp/kg), increases binding quality.
Anisado wine – for ham, tocino, tapa, skinless longganisa, canton sausage and fresh native sausage (2T/kg)
Meat enhancer (hydrolozed vegetable protein)- enhances better flavor, can be applied to all meat products (1/4-1/2 t/kg)
Beef falvor- for hamburger and beef sausages, recommended for extended products with TVP (1 tsp/kg)
Garlic powder – for hambergur, tapa, tocino (1 tsp/kg) , bilbao, canton sausage and fresh native sausage (instead of fresh garlic)
Food color (allura red)- for longanisa and tocino, dissolve 1 tsp. powder in ¼ cup water.
This serves as the stock solution.
Texturized vegetable protein (TVP) from soybeans , uses as meat extender to increase the yield of ¼ cup TVP + product to bring down the cost ½ cup water /kg meat.
Sodium benzoate- preservative, to prolong shelf-life of meat products ¼ tsp/kg meat.
Meat tenderizer or soda 5, to tenderize the meat ¼ tsp/ kg meat.
Paprika or bilbao powder- for chorizo de bilbaos: 5-9 tbsp/kg, bilbao and chorize de recado 2 tbsp/kg
Corned beef seasoning- for corned beef ,enhances the flavor 1 tbsp/kg.
Nutmeg- for corned beef, luncheon meat, structured ham, nuggets, for seasoning 1 tsp/kg.
Trimix or multiblend- for corned beef – 1-2 tbsp dissolved, to chicken corned beef extract, add’t to the meat to increase yield extract and boil until it thickens, add to the flaked corned beef.
Celery powder- for hamburger, seasoning and flavor (1/2 tbsp/kg meat)
Hamburger seasoning – better aroma (1 tbsp/kg meat)
Potato starch – for hamburger and longanisa, higher yield, better consistency 1 tbsp/kg meat.
Ham spice- for ham, bacon, chicken ham, flavor for the above products 1 tbsp/kg
Clavo de comer – 5 pcs / 1-2 kgs meat
Oregano – 4 stands/1-2 kg meat.
Laurel- 4-5 /1-2 kg meat
Others: syringe and needle for infecting ham, bacon and chicken ham.
Paperlyne (500 pcs) 1 ream for wrapping
-1 kg. skinless= 24 pcs longganisa and lining for 500 pcs is good for 20 kgs. Linning for hamburger patties
-1 kg hamburger=20 patties
-500 pcs is ood for 25 kgs hamburger patties.
Meat Specialties of the Philippines
MARID agribusiness January 2005